As a step further from chemical analysis, the cellular antioxidation effect investigation measures a material’s intracellular antioxidant capacity and its ability to minimize oxidation damage in cells. It is a preclinical measure of bioavailability of a material that describes the efficiency of the material to be absorbed by human cells, as well as its antioxidation effectiveness within the cells.
We provide this investigation via three sophisticated approaches:
(1) Cellular Nrf2 Assay determines the potential of a test material in stimulating the production of Nrf2 in human cells. Nrf2 serves as a biomarker for anti-oxidation capacity. Nrf2, a transcription factor, is involved in cellular responses to oxidative damage triggered by injury and inflammation. Under basal conditions, it’s mainly in the cytoplasm. In response to oxidative stress, Nrf2 translocates into the nucleus and elicits the antioxidant response by induction of a series of gene products. Therefore, Nrf2 has been studied as a biomarker for anti-oxidation capability.
(2) Cellular Antioxidant Assay (CAA) measures a material’s intracellular antioxidant capacity and its ability to minimize oxidation damage in cells. In CAA assay, a fluorescent probe is placed inside of representative human cells, whose loss of fluorescence is an indication of the damage extent from oxygen radical. A material to be tested is incubated with the cells to allow its natural absorption into cells. Then, an oxygen radical inducer is introduced into the cellular environment, which triggers the release of oxygen radicals. Without antioxidant material present inside of the cells, oxygen radicals permeate through the cell membrane and damage the cells and the marker probe. Such process deters when the antioxidant material is present inside of the cells. The cellular antioxidant effect of the test material is then measured by assessing the preservation effect of the marker probe in the presence of the test material absorbed inside of cells.
(3) Caco-2 Human Intestinal Membrane Bioavailability Assay The Caco-2 bioavailability assay is considered to be the golden standard method in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries for in vitro prediction of in vivo human intestinal bioabsorption and biouptake of a food/nutritional product or medicine candidate. This assay is used to understand the bioavailability of an antioxidant or phytonutrient in a biological system.